The effect of solar wind high-speed streams on the galactic cosmic rays intensity

1Kolesnyk, YL, 1Klyuyeva, AI, 1Shakhov, BA, 1Fedorov, YI
1Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
Kinemat. fiz. nebesnyh tel (Online) 2016, 32(6):3-19
Start Page: Space Physics
Language: Russian

The effect of high-speed recurrent solar wind streams from coronal holes on the intensity of the galactic cosmic rays has been investigated. The distribution of galactic cosmic rays for various solar cycle phases was considered on the basis of data of neutron monitor world network. In the framework of inhomogeneous model which includes homogeneous background and regions of high-speed streams, the transport equation solution has been obtained and the effect of high-speed streams on the galactic cosmic ray spatial distribution has been evaluated. It is shown that theoretical calculations is confirmed with experimental results that have been obtained for 2000—2014 years if to apply assumptions regarding the mean free path of cosmic rays in the corresponding period of high-speed streams.

Keywords: coronal holes, galactic cosmic rays, solar wind

1.A. A. Abunin, “Connection of the Forbush effect’s value with internal and external parameters,” in Proc. 10th Baksan Youth School of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Prielbrusye, October 18–25, 2009 (MIFI, Moscow, 2010), Vol. 2, pp. 74–81.

2.A. A. Abunin, Candidate’s Dissertation in Mathematics and Physics (IZMIRAN, Moscow, 2014).

3.H. Bateman and A. Erdélyi, Higher Transcendential Functions (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1953, Nauka, Moscow, 1965).

4.A. V. Belov, E. A. Eroshenko, V. A. Oleneva, A. B. Struminsky, and V. G. Yanke, “What determines the magnitude of Forbush decreases?” Izv. Ross. Akad. Nauk, Ser. Fiz. 65, 373–376 (2001).

5.A. Z. Dolginov and I. N. Toptygin, “Multiple scattering of particles in a magnetic field with random inhomogeneities,” JETP 24, 1195–1202 (1967).

6.A. Z. Dolginov and I. N. Toptygin, “Diffusion of cosmic rays in the interplanetary medium,” Geomagn. Aeron. 7, 967–973 (1967).

7.L. I. Dorman, Cosmic Ray Variations (Gostekhteorizdat, Moscow, 1957; Ohio Air Force Base, Washington, DC, 1957).

8.L. I. Dorman, Cosmic Rays: Variations and Space Explorations (Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Moscow, 1963; North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1974).

9.L. I. Dorman, M. E. Kats, and B. A. Shakhov, “On connection between different forms of the cosmic ray diffusion equation,” Geomagn. Aeron. 16, 919–920 (1976).

10.Yu. I. Yermolaev, N. S. Nikolaeva, I. G. Lodkina, and M. Yu. Yermolaev, “Catalog of large-scale solar wind phenomena during 1976–2000,” Cosmic Res. 47, 81–94 (2009).

11.I. A. Zhitnik, R. K. Zhigalkin, A. P. Ignat’ev, et al., “Investigation of solar formations using complex observations from the Earth and onboard the CORONAS-F Satellite: IV. Coronal holes, open magnetic pipes and their relation to high-speed streams of solar wind,” Izv. Krym. Astrofiz. Obs. 69, 128–145 (2005).

12.G. F. Krymskii, A. I. Kuz’min, P. A. Krivoshapkin, et al., Cosmic Rays and Solar Wind (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1981) [in Russian].

13.G. F. Krymskii, A. I. Kuz’min, N. R. Chirkov, et al., “Distribution of solar rays and receiving vectors of detectors. I,” Geomagn. Aeron. 6, 991–996 (1966).

14.I. N. Toptygin, Solar Rays in Interplanetary Magnetic Fields (Nauka, Moscow, 1983) [in Russian].

15.Yu. I. Fedorov, “Modulation of galactic cosmic ray intensity in the turbulent heliosphere,” Kinematics Phys. Celestial Bodies 31, 105–118 (2015).

16.A. Hundhausen, Coronal Expansion and Solar Wind (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972; Mir, Moscow, 1976).

17.A. M. Altukhov, G. F. Krymsky, and A. I. Kuzmin, “The method of “global survey” for investigating cosmic ray modulation,” in Proc. 11th Int. Conf. on Cosmic Rays, Budapest, Aug. 25–Sept. 4, 1969, Ed. by A. Somogyi, Vol. 4: Muons and Neutrinos, Techniques, in Ser. Acta Physica, Vol. 29, Suppl., p. 457.

18.Badruddin, “Cosmic ray modulation: effects of high-speed solar wind streams,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 246, 171–191 (1997).

19.Badruddin. “Transient perturbations and their effects in the heliosphere, the geo-magnetosphere, and the Earth’s atmosphere: Space weather perspective,” J. Astrophys. Astron. 27, 209–217 (2006).

20.R. S. Badruddin, R. S. Yadav, and N. R. Yadav, “Influence of magnetic clouds on cosmic ray intensity variation,” Sol. Phys. 105, 413–428 (1986).

21.A. V. Belov, “Large-scale modulation: View from the Earth,” Space Sci. Rev. 93, 71–105 (2000).

22.A. V. Belov and E. A. Eroshenko, “Cosmic ray observations for space weather,” in Proc. 22nd ISTC Japan Workshop on Space Weather Forecast, Nagoya, June 5–6, 2002, Ed. by Y. Muraki (Nagoya Univ., Nagoya, 2002), pp. 129–146.

23.A. V. Belov, “Forbush effects and their connection with solar, interplanetary and geomagnetic phenomena,” Proc. Int. Astron. Union 4 (s257), 439–450 (2008).

24.A. V. Belov, E. A. Eroshenko, V. A. Oleneva, and V. G. Yanke, “Relation of the Forbush effects to the interplanetary and geomagnetic parameters,” in Proc. 27th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. (ICRC 2001), Hamburg, Aug. 8–15, 2001 (Copernicus, Göttingen, 2001), Vol. 9, pp. 3352–3355.

25.G. M. Boezio, P. Carlson, T. Francke, et al., “The cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra between 0.4 and 200 GV,” Astrophys. J. 518, 457–472 (1999).

26.H. V. Cane, “Cosmic ray decreases and magnetic clouds,” J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys. 98, 3509–3512 (1993).

27.H. V. Cane, I. G. Richardson, and T. T. von Rosenvinge, “Cosmic ray decreases: 1964–1994,” J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys. 101, 21561–21572 (1996).

28.H. V. Cane, “Coronal mass ejections and Forbush decreases,” Space Sci. Rev. 93, 55–77 (2000).

29.H. V. Cane, I. G. Richardson, and T. T. von Rosenvinge, “Cosmic ray decreases and particle acceleration in 1978–1982 and the associated solar wind structures,” J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys. 98, 13295–13302 (1993).

30.L. I. Dorman, M. E. Katz, Yu. I. Fedorov, and B. A. Shakhov, “Variations of cosmic-ray energy in interplanetary space,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 94, 43–95 (1983).

31.L. J. Gleeson and W. I. Axford, “Solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays,” Astrophys. J. 154, 1011–1026 (1968).

32.N. Iucci, M. Parisi, M. Storini, and G. Villoresi, “Forbush decreases: Origin and development in the interplanetary space,” Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis., C 2, 1–52 (1979).

33.N. Iucci, M. Parisi, M. Storini, and G. Villoresi, “Interplanetary disturbances during Forbush decreases,” Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis., C 7, 467–488 (1984).

34.Yu. L. Kolesnik and B. A. Shakhov, “Effect of the heliosheath and standing termination shock on galactic cosmic ray propagation in a stationary heliosphere model,” Kinematics Phys. Celestial Bodies 28, 261–269 (2012).

35.Yu. L. Kolesnyk and B. A. Shakhov, “Galactic cosmic ray distribution in the simplest model of termination shock near the heliospheric boundaries,” Kinematics Phys. Celestial Bodies 25, 213–219 (2009).

36.K. Kudela, M. Storini, M. Y. Hofer, and A. V. Belov, “Cosmic rays in relation to space weather,” Space Sci. Rev. 93, 153 (2000).

37.B. A. Lindblad and H. Lundstedt, “A catalogue of high-speed plasma streams in the solar wind,” Sol. Phys. 74, 197–206 (1981).

38.B. A. Lindblad and H. Lundstedt, “A catalogue of high-speed plasma streams in the solar wind 1975–78,” Sol. Phys. 88, 377–382 (1983).

39.B. A. Lindblad, H. Lundstedt, and B. Larsson, “A third catalogue of high-speed plasma streams in the solar wind — data for 1978–1982,” Sol. Phys. 120, 145–152 (1989).

40.J. A. Lockwood, “Forbush decreases in the cosmic radiation,” Space Sci. Rev. 12, 658–715 (1971). doi 10.1007/BF00173346

41.H. Mavromichalaki and A. Vassilaki, “Fast plasma streams recorded near the Earth during 1985–1996,” Sol. Phys. 183, 181–200 (1998).

42.H. Mavromichalaki, A. Vassilaki, and E. Marmatsouri, “A catalogue of high-speed solar-wind streams: Further evidence of their relationship to Ap-index,” Sol. Phys. 115, 345–365 (1988).

43.S. Mori, “Theoretical calculation of the cosmic-ray solar diurnal variation. II — Meson component,” Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis., B 58, 58–70 (1968).

44.E. N. Parker, “The passage of energetic charged particles through interplanetary space,” Planet. Space Sci. 13, 9–49 (1965).

45.G. D. Parker, “Solar wind disturbances and recurrent modulation of galactic cosmic rays,” J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys. 81, 3825–3833 (1976).

46.M. S. Potgieter, “Solar modulation of cosmic rays,” Living Rev. Sol. Phys. 10, 3–66 (2013).

47.M. S. Potgieter, “Very local interstellar spectra for galactic electrons, protons and helium,” Braz. J. Phys. 44, 581–588 (2014).

48.M. S. Potgieter, E. E. Vos, M. Boezio, N. De Simone, V. Di Felice, and V. Formato, “Modulation of galactic protons in the heliosphere during the unusual solar minimum of 2006 to 2009,” Sol. Phys. 289, 391–406 (2013).

49.V. S. Ptuskin, H. J. Völk, V. N. Zirakashvili, and D. Breitschwerdt, “Transport of relativistic nucleons in a galactic wind driven by cosmic rays,” Astron. Astrophys. 321, 434–443 (1997).

50.B. A. Shakhov and Yu. L. Kolesnik, “Heliospheric propagation of galactic cosmic rays depending on the scattering characteristics of the turbulent interplanetary magnetic field,” Kinematics Phys. Celestial Bodies 24, 280–292 (2008).

51.B. A. Shakhov and Yu. L. Kolesnyk, “Effect of the heliopause and the termination shock on the galactic cosmic rays distribution in stationary model of heliosphere,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 409, 012154 (2013).

52.J. A. Simpson, “Cosmic-radiation intensity-time variations and their origin. III. The origin of 27-day variations,” Phys. Rev. 94, 426–440 (1954).

53.I. H. Urch and L. J. Gleeson, “Galactic cosmic ray modulation from 1965–1970,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 17, 426–446 (1972).

54.D. Venkatesan, A. K. Shukla, and S. P. Agrawal, “Cosmic ray intensity variations and two types of high speed solar streams,” Sol. Phys. 81, 375–381 (1982).

55.H. J. Vershell, R. B. Mendall, S. A. Korff, and E. C. Roelof, “Two classes of cosmic ray decrease,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1189–1201 (1975).

56.W. R. Webber, P. R. Hiegbie, and F. B. McDonald, “The unfolding of the spectra of low energy galactic cosmic ray H and He nuclei as the Voyager 1 spacecraft exits the region of heliospheric modulation” (2013).

57.W. R. Webber and F. B. McDonald, “Recent Voyager 1 data indicate that on 25 August 2012 at a distance of 121.7 AU from the Sun, sudden and unprecedented intensity changes were observed in anomalous and galactic cosmic rays,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 1665–1668 (2013).

58.G. Xystouris, E. Sigala, and H. Mavromichalaki, “A complete catalogue of high-speed solar wind streams during solar cycle 23,” Sol. Phys. 289, 995–1012.

59.R. S. Yadav, N. K. Sharma, and Badruddin, “Effects of two types of solar wind streams on intensity variations of cosmic rays,” Sol. Phys. 151, 393–396 (1994).