Geomagnetic variations caused by Lipetsk meteoroid passage and explosion: measurement results

1Chernogor, LF
1V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv, Ukraine
Kinemat. fiz. nebesnyh tel (Online) 2020, 36(2):58-81
Start Page: Dynamics and Physics of Solar System Bodies
Language: Ukrainian

The first observations of the magnetic effect and its theoretical explanation ware made back in the middle of the 20th century. The mechanisms for the magnetic effect of large celestial bodies (of 1...10 m) fundamentally differ from the mechanisms for disturbances in the geomagnetic field with meteors at ionospheric heights. The large meteoroid passage through the atmosphere and its explosion is accompanied by the generation of a powerful shock wave, the formation of a plume, which result in the geomagnetic effect. To the present day, researchers are divided on the main geomagnetic effect of large meteoroids. The Tungus and Chelyabinsk meteoroid measurements are available for researchers. In the case of the Chelyabinsk meteoroid, the variations in the geomagnetic field are detected and explained both prior to and after the explosion of this celestial body. The analysis of observations of the passage of any large enough celestial body is of considerable theoretical and practical interest. The purpose of work is the presentation of analysis of magnetic field variations that arise as a result of Lipetsk meteoroid passage through the Earth’s magnetosphere and the atmosphere, the estimate and discussion of the magnetic effect and its mechanisms. The rate of passage of such meteoroids events is equal to 0.68 yr–1. Using the data provided by the Kharkiv V. N. Karazin National University Magnetic Observatory (Kharkiv, Ukraine), the temporal variations in the horizontal components of the geomagnetic field on June 21, 2018, the day of the Lipetsk meteoroid passage, and on June 20 and 22, 2018, the reference days, have been analyzed. The meteoroid initial speed was equal to 14.4 km/s, the initial mass equal to 113 t, and the initial size equal to approximately 4 m. The distance from the site where the meteoroid explosion-like release of energy occurred to the observatories is equal to 360 km. The passage of the Lipetsk meteoroid in the magnetosphere and the atmosphere has been shown to be accompanied by alternating-sign variations in the geomagnetic field components. The magnetic effect of the magnetosphere was observed 54...56 min before the meteoroid explosion, the amplitude of the disturbance in the geomagnetic field did not exceed 0.5...1 nT, and the duration 15...20-min. After the meteoroid explosion, with an ~6-min delay, alternating-sign spikes (first positive, then negative) in the H-component level were observed. The spike amplitude was equal to ~1.2...1.5 nT, while the duration of the magnetic effect from the ionosphere was equal tens of minutes. The models for the magnetic effects observed are suggested and theoretical estimates performed. The observations and the estimates are in good agreement.

Keywords: explosive process, geomagnetic variations, Lipetsk meteoroid, magnetic effect of the ionosphere, magnetic effect of the magnetosphere, shock wave, theoretical models

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